위 표에 빨간색으로 형광펜처리가 된 것은 ‘(절대) 셀 수 없는 명사들’입니다. 물론 예를 들어 ‘money’의 복수형 ‘monies’ 를 써서 ‘(격식) 돈의 양’을 나타내는 경우가 있긴 합니다. 따라서 ‘federal monies,’ ‘tax monies’ 라는 쓰임이 있긴 하지만 아래에 나올 단어는 대부분의 경우 (혹은 거의 99%) 셀 수 없는 명사로 알고 계시면 됩니다.
Intelligence [noncount] 지성, 기밀(비밀정보)
He didn’t even have the intelligence to call for an ambulance.
She impressed us with her superior intelligence.
a person of average/normal/high/low intelligence
gathering intelligence about a neighboring country’s activities
The FBI and CIA need to share intelligence on terrorism.
The consultancy focused on leadership and emotional intelligence.
Money [noncount] 돈
Dinner costs a lot of money last night.
a sum of money
That painting must be worth a lot of money.
She’s been making a lot of money in her new job.
Access [noncount] 접근, 접근허가
All public buildings should provide wheelchair access.
The cup holders are placed for easy access.
Investigators are trying to gain access to his financial records.
He was granted access to the report.
[!] 명사로 쓸 때 access는 to와 함께 다닙니다.
반면에 access가 동사로 쓰일 때는 뒤에 to가 따라오지 않습니다. (학생들이 자주 틀리지요 ㅠㅠ)
I can’t access the database. vs. I don’t have access to database.
Independence [noncount] 독립
They are fighting for independence from colonial rule.
Her ambition is to achieve financial independence.
She asserted her independence from her parents by getting her own apartment.
[!] independence가 singular로 사용되는 경우도 없진 않습니다.
He has shown a fierce independence of spirit.
사전에 나오긴 하지만 자주 보이는 표현은 아닌 듯 하네요.. 🙂
Anger [noncount] 화
He couldn’t hid his anger with/at us.
You could hear the anger in his voice.
He never raised his voice in anger.
She was shaking in/with anger.
Equipment [noncount] 설비, 도구
The photographer came early to set up his equipment.
I’m looking for a hobby that doesn’t require a lot of fancy equipment.
an expensive piece of medical equipment
[!] equipment를 셀 때는 ‘piece’와 함께 씁니다.
News [noncount] 뉴스
[!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 자주 틀리는 단어입니다.
The company has been in the news recently.
Do you have any news to report?
I have some good news, and I have some bad news.
What’s the big news?
It was late summer when news of his death arrived.
We tried to break the news.
[!] the news 라고 하면 a television news program을 뜻하기도 합니다.
Have you seen the news?
We saw it on the evening news.
The local news is on at 5:30.
Spaghetti [noncount] 스파게티면 (파스타)
Well known pastas such as spaghetti and lasagne are still the best-selling products.
small tin of spaghetti or baked beans in tomato sauce
Sugared spaghetti with glazed meatballs
I like spaghetti here, with my salad and vinegar and oil running into it.
[!] 동의어인 Pasta 역시 ‘면’을 나타낼 때는 noncount 입니다.
I eat a lot of pasta.
They ordered pasta with meat sauce.
그러나 Breads and pastas are high in carbohydrates…라는 예문을 보면 ‘pasta’를 파스타음식(dishes)이라는 의미로 쓸 때는 -s를 붙여 복수형으로 쓰기도 합니다. 스파게티도 마찬가지로 I like all kinds of spaghettis. 라고 하기도 하지요.. 🙂
Advice [noncount] 조언
[!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 advices라고 적거나 advise(동사형)과 자주 헷갈려합니다. 주의합시다!
My advice is to sell your old car and get a new one.
Take my advice and go to the party.
He needs advice from an expert.
Let me offer you a piece of advice. = Let me offer you some advice.
[!] a piece of/a bit of/a word of + advice 라고 자주 표현합니다 🙂
Electricity [noncount] 전기/ 짜릿하거나 긴장된 느낌
Electricity is dangerous.
The electricity went off during the storm.
an old building with no plumbing or electricity
I switched the light off to save electricity.
/You could feel the electricity in the room.
Stuff [noncount] 물건 등
[!] thing과 동의어로 생각하여 stuffs라고 하는 학생들이 많습니다. 셀 수 없는 명사니 유의합시다.
They sold tons of the stuff.
Trust me. This stuff works.
That stuff is expensive.
I need a place to store my stuff.
computers, word processors, and stuff like that
She got out the cooking stuff to bake some cookies.
Agriculture [noncount] 농업
They cleared the land to use it for agriculture.
The number of people employed in agriculture has fallen in the last decade.
50% of the country’s population depends on agriculture.
Furniture [noncount] 가구류
They bought some new furniture for the house.
The office furniture is wearing out.
a large piece of furniture
The room would look bigger if we rearranged the furniture.
The wood is used for making fine furniture.
[!] 가구를 왜 못 세냐? 세면 되지…라고 하는 분들이 있더라고요ㅎㅎㅎㅎㅎ
‘Furniture’이라는 단어는 가구 하나를 말하는 것이 아니라 ‘가구류’를 말하는 겁니다.
셀 때는 ‘piece’ 를 이용하여 셉니다 ㅎㅎㅎ
China [noncount] 도자기
The vase is china.
a china teapot
She had already chosen the china pattern and table linen.
The china cabinet was filled with expensive dishes.
Fun [noncount] 재미
The game was a lot of fun.
She is fun to be with.
It is fun to be with her. = It is fun being with her.
He plays cards just for fun.
Sickness takes all the fun out of life.
I can’t remember when I’ve had so much fun.
Patience [noncount] 인내심
I don’t have the patience to wait in line for hours just to buy a ticket.
Investors need to have patience. The economy will improve soon.
All these mistakes of yours are trying my patience.
She treated her students with great patience and humor.
I don’t have much patience for that kind of behavior.
Worth [noncount] 가치
He bought 40 dollars’ worth of gas.
We carried a week’s worth of food.
A diamond’s worth is determined partly by its cut and clarity.
She has 15 years’ worth of experience in fashion industry.
The furniture was of little worth since it was in such bad condition.
Her personal worth is estimated at five million dollars.
A whole day’s worth of work was gone when I deleted the file.
[!] 40 dollars worth of 가 아니라 40 dollars’ worth of 입니다.
40 dollars’s worth = the worth of 40 dollars … apostrophe를 잊지마세요!
[!] worth가 형용사(전치사)로 쓰일 때도 있습니다.
둘의 쓰임을 헷갈리지 않도록 예문을 입에 익혀주세요!
This painting is worth a fortune.
The book is worth reading.
It was worth a try.
The watch was worth ten million dollars.
The local museums are well worth a visit.
Courage [noncount] 용기
The troops showed great courage in battle.
She takes the courage to support unpopular causes.
I finally worked up the courage to tell him the bad news.
He has the courage of his convictions.
Eventually, she summoned the courage to confront him.
[!] 유사한 의미로는 bravery 가 있습니다. courage와 마찬가지로 noncount 입니다.
He received a medal for his bravery.
She showed great bravery.
an act of bravery
Homework (schoolwork/classwork) [noncount] 해야할 일, 과제
Please do finish your homework.
How much homework do you get?
I have to write up the notes for homework.
[!] cf) assignment (과제)는 셀 수 있습니다.
My assignment was to clean the equipment.
The students were given an assignment.
cf) Assignment [noncount] (사람) 배정, 배치, 배당
The article discusses the recent assignment of senators.
her assignment to the embassy in India
She’s on assignment in Greece at the moment.
the assignment of blame/responsibility
Flesh [noncount] 살, 피부, 실체 / (과일) 과육
the flabby white flesh of his belly
a disease that causes sores on the flesh
She wasn’t a ghost. She was flesh and blood.
the sweet flesh of a mango
[!] cf) Flesh [singular] (문학) 육체 – physical, sexual needs 에 관해 말할 때
the pleasures/sins of the flesh
[!] 유사한 의미인 skin을 한 번 볼까요?
Skin [count] [noncount] 피부, 껍질
I have dry skin.
She has pale skin.
Her boots are made of alligator skin.
Potato skin is very nutritious.
Native Americans had many uses for animal skins.
Health [noncount] 건강, 건강한 상태
to be in good health
Smoking can seriously damage your health.
He was nursed back to health by his wife.
Exhaust fumes are bad for your health.
As long as you have your health, nothing else matters.
Insurance [noncount] 보험, 보험사업
He was very glad that he had taken out insurance on the boat.
Can you claim for the loss on your insurance?
He works in insurance.
What’s the monthly insurance on your car?
to pay insurance on your house.
[!] insurance + on something 이라고 잘 씁니다.
[!] take out insurance 보험에 가입하다
You have to take out insurance on your house.
We recommend that you take out travel insurance on all holidays.
[!] 보험이라는 의미가 아니라 ‘미래에 닥칠 일에 대한 보호장치’라는 뜻으로 사용할 경우에는 count/noncount가 모두 가능하며 주로 against와 함께 사용합니다.
a marquee was hired as an insurance against the weather
At that time, people had large families as an insurance against some children dying.
Education provides insurance against instability in the job market.
The contract provides insurance against future price changes.
Loneliness [noncount] 고독, 외로움
a period of loneliness in his life
feelings of loneliness and depression
the desolation and loneliness of the island
the loneliness of all those evenings at home just watching TV
Luck [noncount] 운, 운수
Our meeting happened by luck.
Her business has been doing poorly, but she’s hoping that her luck will change.
Our car broke down on the road, but luck was on our side and there was a garage nearby.
I arrived a little late and luck was against me: the last ticket had just been sold.
[!] 세번째 문장에 있는 ‘garage’는 집 앞의 차고를 말하는 것이 아니라 차량정비센터를 뜻합니다 🙂
Magic [noncount] 마술, 마법(같은 것)
They wanted to get the old magic back into their marriage.
Do you believe in magic?
a place of secret shadows and ancient magic
A passage was cleared through the crowd like magic.
Some doubted the company could ever get back its former magic.
Baggage, Luggage [noncount] (물질적, 마음의-baggage) 짐
Please collect your baggage.
His difficult childhood left him with a lot of emotional baggage.
the cultural baggage of the region
Passengers are limited to two items of cary-on luggage.
[!] carry-on 비행기 안에 들고 들어가는 가방(기내 휴대용 가방) 입니다.
a carry-on (suitcase/bag) [count]
One one carry-on is allowed.
I packed the book in my carry-on.
Spite [noncount] 악의
He is jealous and full of spite.
an act of spite
You only denied his request out of spite.
She was angry and full of spite.
I’m sure he only said it out of pure spite.
This was her final act of spite.
[!] full of spite/ out of (pure) spite 라는 표현을 자주 쓰니 알아둡시다!
Violence [noncount] 폭력
The violence of her feelings surprised him.
the violence of the eruption
He reacted to the idea with some violence.
Why do they always have to resort to violence?
Violence broke out inside the prison last week.
Information [noncount] 정보
According to my information, work was due to start last week.
He refused to comment before he had seen all the relevant information.
For further information on the diet, write to us at this address.
Our information is that the police will shortly make an arrest.
[!] 첫 문장에 나오는 due to는 보통 학생들이 알고 있는 because of something 이라는 구문이 아닙니다.
‘A is due to do B’ : A가 B할 것으로 보인다/예상한다 라는 뜻입니다.
The case is due to go to court next month.
They are due to arrive any minute now.
The first price increases are due to come into force in July.
‘due’는 쓰임이 굉장히 다양합니다. ‘expected’ 등으로 대체해서 예문을 살펴보고 익혀봅시다.
Due [adjective] expected/owed/deserving… 한국어로 일률적으로 옮기기가 곤란하지만.. 굳이한다면 ‘다 된’ 정도가 되겠네요.
The bill is due at the end of the month.
The balance is now due.
The amount due is 45 dollars.
When is she due? (출산예정)
Her baby is due in May.
Her first baby is due next month.
When is the assignment due?
Students’ term papers are due next Monday.
I’m due at the meeting in ten minutes.
The rent is due on the first day of each month.
He finally got the recognition he was due.
I’m still due 15 days’ leave.
Due for (=expecting)
She’s due for promotion soon.
I’m due for a dentist’s appointment.
He will be due for another raise in June.
The prisoners are not due for release until next year.
I’m due for a pay raise.
Due [noun] 권리
At last, she has the justice that is her due.
He deserves to be given his due.
She has yet to receive her due.
Dues [noun] 정기적으로 내는 돈
Membership dues are $120.
Dues are increasing every year.
Workers are required to join the union and pay dues.
Machinery [noncount] 기계류
Some of the mill’s machinery was damaged in the fire.
a piece of farm machinery
Something was clogging the machinery.
They are faced with the task of dismantling the state machinery in order to create more democratic structures.
[!] 그냥 ‘기계’를 뜻하는 ‘machine’은 셀 수 있습니다.
Progress [noncount] 진보
The progress of science
There wasn’t much traffic so we made good progress.
We’re not finished yet, but we’re making progress.
She offered a progress report.
The project showed slow but steady progress.
Traffic [noncount] 자동차 등 탈 것의 ‘집합’, 교통량
Let’s leave early to avoid rush hour traffic.
Traffic is backed up to the bridge.
Airlines saw a decrease in passenger traffic this year.
There is a walkway along the bridge for pedestrian/foot traffic.
They were stuck in traffic and missed their flight.
[!] 차가 아닌 사람들이 많이 “걸어다녀서 생기는 교통량”은 pedestrian/foot traffic이라고 합니다.
[noncount] 물건 운송
the traffic of goods between one country and another
Traffic of goods between the two regions was severely disrupted during the war.
[noncount] 컴퓨터 트래픽(양)
We’re trying to increase traffic to our site.
Internet traffic can cause slower response times during peak hours.
the computer servers that manage global Internet traffic
Telecom operators have upgraded their networks to improve their capacity as data traffic increases.
[noncount] 불법거래, 밀매 (trafficking)
Drug traffic across the border has increased.
the traffic in firearms
She was convicted of drug trafficking.
[!] traffic은 동사도 있고 trafficked라는 형용사도 있습니다 🙂
Traffic (in a commodity) [no object, verb] 불법적으로 물건(마약이나 무기 등)을 거래하다
a gang that traffics in drugs
The woman had been trafficked and forced into prostitution.
The cartel is now trafficking in illegal immigrants.
Children living in the slums are at risk of being trafficked into prostitution.
Approximately ten thousand victims annually are trafficked across international borders worldwide.
Trafficked [adjective] 교통량이 있는 [!]발음은 [츄레f픽트] 입니다.
That is a heavily trafficked bridge. (=a heavily used bridge)
It is one of the most trafficked sites on the Web.
We rode on through the morning, and at each fork in the road, we took the less trafficked one.
Purity [noncount] 순도, 순수함
the absolute purity of her love
the building’s unadorned purity of style
The group launched a campaign promoting chastity and moral purity.
The veil was regarded as a symbol of the bride’s purity.
Rice [noncount] 쌀(벼)
a grain of rice
Glutinous rice is grown especially for use in this traditional dessert.
the grains of wheat and rice
[!] a grain of/grains of rice를 사용하여 양을 나타냅니다.
Safety [noncount] 안전
The changes were made in the interest of public safety.
He sought safety in a church.
The toys are inspected for safety.
[noncount] 안전한 장소
I managed to swim to safety.
We watched the lions from the safety of the car.
They reached safety seconds before the building was engulfed in flames.
Welfare [noncount] 복지(금), 안녕, 후생
He wants to do away with welfare. [!] do away with = get rid of
His family is on welfare.
She donates to organization concerned about animal welfare.
lone parents living on welfare benefits
people concerned about child welfare
the number of families on welfare
Salt [noncount] 소금
The soup needs a little more salt.
Season the meat with salt and pepper.
Add a pinch of salt.
Most foodstuffs contain some salt. [!] foodstuff [count] = food
a diet low in salt
[!] 먹는 소금이 아닌 화학물질을 말하는 technical term의 경우에는 salt도 셀 수 있습니다.
Music [noncount] 음악(학과), 악보
I use my laptop to burn music to a CD.
The ability to appreciate music is largely learned.
They like to make music with friends.
I had to play it without the music.
Can you read music?
He got into music by chance.
She studied music in college.
Research [noncount] 연구
The study is an important piece of research.
She conducts research on the causes of Alzheimer’s disease.
He did a lot of research before buying his car.
Research on animals has led to some important medical advances.
I’ve done some research to find out the cheapest way to go to Paris.
[!] researches 라는 표현이 있긴 합니다만 현대에는 잘 사용하지 않는 (old-fashioned) 표현입니다.
Training [noncount] 훈련
The job requires special training.
She owes her flexibility to her early training as a dancer.
He received training in first aid. (first aid = emergency treatment)
I’m delighted with the work he has done in training.
I go to football training after school.