이번 번외편에서는 학생들이 에세이를 쓰거나 영어로 말할 때 자주 틀리는 명사에 대해서 알아보려고 합니다. 간혹 학생들이 절대 셀 수 없는 명사인데 a/an을 붙이거나, 셀 수 있는 명사인데 a/an을 빼먹는 경우가 있습니다. 번외편 이후에는 이제 더 이상 ‘셀 수 있는/없는 명사’에 대한 이야기가 나오지 않습니다. 마지막편이니 꼭 완주하시길 바랍니다 🙂
* 학생들이 자주 틀리는 셀 수 있는/없는 명사목록
Action [count] 행동, 조치
a military action
I accept full responsibility for my actions.
He was critical of the government’s actions.
This is just one of the many actions that they could have taken.
Action [noncount] (특수한 목표를 달성하기 위한) 조치
The situation demanded immediate action.
The problem may require military action.
They decided that no further action was necessary.
We were ready to take action.
We need to agree on a plan of action.
Because the company failed to take action, many people were hurt.
[!] take action (조치를 취하다) 이라는 표현, 외워둡시다!
Art [noncount] 예술
It’s a remarkable picture, but is it art?
She prefers art films to Hollywood blockbusters.
He studied art in college.
She’s good at art and design.
The museum has a large collection of folk art.
The arts 예술활동 (그림, 조각, 음악, 문학 등)
She’s a patron of the arts.
Catherine the Great was a patron of the arts and sciences.
He wants the government to increase its funding for the arts.
lottery funding for the arts
Arts [plural] 인문학
an arts degree
a bachelor of arts
the College of Arts and Sciences
Art [count] 기술, 기술로써의 예술/ 예술
He never learned the art of making friends.
She’s a master of the art of conversation.
There’s an art to cooking.
Writing letters has become something of a lost art.
Appearing confident at interviews is quite an art.
Shipbuilding is both an art and a science.
the performing/visual/graphic arts
[!] 마지막 예문에서 나온 ‘science’에 왜 ‘a’가 붙었지?! 하시는 분들을 위해 science도 살펴봅시다.
Science [noncount] 과학(지식/학문)
the laws of science
The program encourages students to pursue a carer in science.
advances in science and technology
Science [count] 과학에서 특정 분야(과목), 기술
The life sciences include biology and botany
Students are required to take two sciences.
students majoring in (a) science
Cooing is both a science and an art.
Skin [noncount] [count] 피부, 과일이나 동물의 가죽
I have dry skin.
She has pale/dark/fair skin.
the rough skin of a shark
His boots are made of alligator skin.
Potato skin is very nutritious.
These snakes shed their skins once a year.
Native Americans had many uses for animal skins.
[!] skin(가죽)과 유사한 뜻을 가진 leather는 셀 수 없는 명사입니다.
Leather [noncount] 가죽
The soles are made of leather.
Each volume is bound in genuine leather.
I’m looking for a pair of boots in dark brown leather.
The leather has been treated with wax.
a coat made from buffalo leather
Leathers [plural] (오토바이 탈 때 입는) 가죽의류
a biker in black leathers
He was wearing a crash helmet and full leathers.
They had leathers on and stood beside their bikes.
Change [noncount] [count] 변화, 기분전환(for a change)
There has been little change in her daily routine.
You shouldn’t be afraid of change.
The years have brought many changes to the town’s economy.
She is someone who hates change.
a change of address/name
changes of mood/attitude
We’ve been so busy that a quiet day at home was a welcome change.
Let’s eat out for a change.
Change [noncount] 잔돈
Have you got change for a $10 bill?
It cost $9 and I gave you $10, so I should be getting $1 in change.
You can keep the change.
Can you make change for a twenty (dollar bill)?
The ticket machine gives change.
Change [count] 갈아입을 옷
For a weekend in the country, you’ll need several changes of clothes.
The only extra clothes he took with him were a pair of socks and a change of underwear.
She packed a change of clothes for the weekend.
I keep a change of shoes in the car.
[!] a change of/changes of + clothes/underwear/shoes 갈아입을 옷, 속옷, 신발
Condition [noncount] (삶, 존재의) 상태
Happiness is the state or condition of being happy.
The need to be loved is simply part of the human condition.
Condition [noncount] [count] (물건 등의) 상태
The museum restores paintings to their original conditions.
The car is in excellent/perfect condition.
Both clocks are still in good working condition.
Condition [singular] 사람이나 동물의 상태
The driver was taken to the hospital and he is in (a) good condition.
He can’t drive in that condition.
Those players are all in good condition.
Condition [count] (오랫동안 앓은) 질병
He was born with a serious heart condition.
The condition is often fatal.
Her medical condition made it impossible for her to walk.
Conditions [plural] (사는 곳, 일하는 곳 등의) 상황, 상태
They need better living conditions.
dangerous driving conditions
Both teams had trouble with the difficult playing conditions.
This type of plant can live in very dry conditions.
[!] condition과 관련된 표현 몇 개만 알아두고 갑시다!
* be in no condition to do something : ~할 상황이 되지 않다.
I was in no condition to go to work yesterday.
He is in no condition to drive.
* be in (good/excellent) condition : 건강한 상태이다.
She was running every evening to stay in condition.
Kids are all in good condition.
* be out of condition’ / ‘be in poor/bad condition : 건강하지 못한(허약한) 상태이다.
He’s overweight and out of condition.
She hasn’t been taking care of herself and is in poor condition.
Small talk [noncount] 담소, 잡담
[!] 학생들이 셀 수 있다고 착각하여 자주 틀리는 단어!!
They made small talk while waiting for the meeting to start.
He has no small talk.
She was good at making small talk.
[!] make를 앞에 붙여 ‘make small talk’ 라는 표현을 자주 씁니다.
Scenery [noncount] (벽, 가구, 나무 등 공연에서의) 배경, 자연풍경
She designed the scenery for the play.
The scenery showed a forest.
beautiful mountain scenery.
We went for a drive to enjoy the scenery.
Scenery [noncount] 환경
He was looking for a new job because he felt he needed a change of scenery.
We decided to go to a new restaurant for a change of scenery.
[!] a change of scenery 라는 표현을 외워둡시다.
Background [count/singular] 배경
in the background
a photograph of a house with mountains in the background
He was a shy man who always tried to keep in the background.
The war has pushed all other issues into the background.
We learned about the social and economic background of the American Civil War.
The meetings took place against a background of increasing tension.
[!] in + the + background 라고 해서 the를 붙여서 자주 씁니다.
Background [noncount] 배경지식
Let me provide you with some background on this problem.
[!] background, scenery와 비슷한 단어인 scene, view, panorama, vista도 살펴보도록 합시다.
Scene [count] 장면, (연극에서) 막
The play’s opening scene takes place in the courtyard.
a famous love/fight/chase scene
a winter scene
a crime scene
There was quite an ugly scene at the restaurant.
The book describes scenes from his childhood.
View [count] 견해, 풍경
What are your political views?
She has an old-fashioned view of women’s roles in society.
I asked for a room with a view.
a scenic/spectacular/beautiful view
The views expressed herein are strictly those of the author.
He has an optimistic view of life.
View [noncount] 시야
The ship disappeared from view.
The museum is within view of our hotel.
There was nobody in view.
The sun disappeared from view.
The lake soon came into view.
The robbery was committed in view of a group of tourists.
You’re blocking my view.
[!] from view, (with)in view (of) 등으로 많이 사용합니다.
Panorama [count] 전경
You can see a panorama of the entire bay from here.
The book presents a panorama of immigration in America.
There is a superb panorama of the mountains from the hotel.
The tower offers a breathtaking panorama of Prague.
Vista [count] (literary, formal) 전망
colorful mountain vistas
Computers have opened up new vistas for scientific research.
She turned her gaze towards the soothing vista of river and fields.
This new job could open up whole new vistas for her.
Sightseeing [noncount] 관광
We spent the afternoon sightseeing.
We did a lot of sightseeing on our vacation.
Society [noncount] 사회
policies that will benefit society as a whole
Racism exists at all levels of society.
They carried out research into the roles of men and women in today’s society.
Poverty hurts society as a whole.
A person’s job is one of the factors that determines their place in society.
Society [count] [noncount] 특정공동체나 집단
modern industrial societies
demand created by a consumer society
Can Britain ever be a classless society?
That kind of behavior isn’t allowed in polite society.
Commitment [count] (~을 하겠다, 주겠다는) 약속
We’ve got commitments from several charities to donate food and clothing.
It’s been a struggle to balance my professional and family commitments.
Are you willing to make a commitment to our cause?
She isn’t ready to make a lifelong commitment to another person.
Opening your own business requires a significant financial commitment.
Commitment [noncount] 헌신
He’s afraid of commitment.
Some of his teammates said he showed a lack of commitment.
The boss noticed her strong commitment to her work.
[!] commitment와 비슷한 단어인 ‘promise’도 알아보도록 합시다!
Promise [count] 약속
That’s a promise.
She gave me a promise.
to make/keep/break a promise
My mother made me a promise to help her.
My mother made a promise to help her.
a promise to her father
We’ve made a promise to him to make it work.
He made a promise to help me.
He simply broke every single promise he ever made me.
[!] make/break a promise (to someone) 의 형태로 많이 사용하며 make someone a promise, make a promise (to someone) to do something 으로도 사용가능합니다!
Promise [noncount] 징후, 장래성
Her work shows great promise.
Their future was full of promise.
The new drug holds promise.
They were attracted by the promise of success.
Spare time [noncount] 여가시간
in one’s spare time
His work for various public bodies left him little spare time.
In her spare time, she reads books on cooking.
TV (television) [noncount] 텔레비전 시스템, 프로그램, 텔레비전 사업
Do you want to watch some TV?
She works in TV.
I have satellite television.
He is a star of television.
TV (television) [count] 텔레비전(기계)
unplug the TV
We need a new TV.
We’re buying a brand-new TV with the money.
[!] on과 함께 써서 ‘on television’ 이라고 하면 ‘TV에’ 라는 뜻이 됩니다.
What’s on TV?
There’s nothing on television right now.
The movie will be on TV next week.
Are you on TV?
Deception [noncount] 속임수
She accuses the company of willful deception in its advertising.
She practiced deception on her unsuspecting clients.
a drama full of lies and deception
Deception [count] 속이는 행동
His many deceptions did not become known until years after he died.
It was a deliberate deception on his part.
a clever deception = a clever trick
The whole episode had been a cruel deception.
[!] deception과 유사한 뜻인 ‘trick’에 대해서도 알아봅시다.
Trick [count] 묘기, 재주
It was a trick to persuade her to give him money.
a handy trick for remembering names
He played a trick on me.
I know a good trick for removing staines from white shirts.
Trickery [noncount] 속임수
He resorted to trickery to get what he wanted.
an act of trickery
She clearly suspected some kind of trickery.
Vegetable [count] 야채
The doctor said I should eat more vegetables and fruits.
a salad of raw vegetables
They grow all their own vegetables.
Vegetable [count] 식물인간
Severe brain damage turned him into a vegetable.
The accident had left him a vegetable.
Vegetation [noncount] 전반적인 식물들, 초목
the dense/lush vegetation of the jungle
hills covered in(with) vegetation
The vegetation became sparse in this town.
Removal of the natural vegetation has resulted in a loss of nutrients in the soil.
Wood [noncount] [count] 목재
a block of wood
Some bats are made out of wood.
a plank of wood.
furniture made of a variety of different woods
Wood/woods [count] [noncount] 숲, 삼림
Their house is near a small wood.
The woods are a dangerous place for walking.
She wandered through the woods.
We went for a walk in the woods.
The house is surrounded by woods.
Rescue [count] 구조
Her own boat capsized after she attempted a rescue.
The lifeguard performed a heroic rescue.
a daring rescue at sea
When her brother lost her job, she came to his rescue by paying his rent.
The policeman went to the rescue of the lost boy.
[!] (go) come to one’s rescue/ come to the rescue (of someone) ~가 ~를 구해주러 오다
It was an embarrassing moment, but fortunately Paul came to the rescue.
Several people saw I was in trouble, but no one came to my rescue.
Friendship [noncount] [count] 우정
They have a long-standing friendship.
They struck up a friendship. (= They became friends.)
She formed many friendships.
a friendship between two countries
[!] relationship과 비교해보세요!
Relationship [noncount] [count] (인간) 관계, 연애, 연관성
the relationship between the two countries
She has a close relationship with her sister.
We have a good working relationship.
I’m not in a relationship right now.
She has had many bad relationships.
Her earlier paintings bear little relationship to her later work.
Evidence [noncount] [count] 증거, 근거
There is no evidence.
You need to find evidence to support his theory.
She first gave evidence of her abilities.
They found many evidences of neglect.
The jury had a great deal of evidence to sort through before reaching a verdict.
Proof [noncount] [count] 증거
The document was proof that her story was true.
Do you have any proof?
Keep the receipt as proof of purchase.
These results are a further proof of his outstanding ability.
Proof [count] (수학) 증명
The proof shows that the theorem is true.
Mathematical proofs of conjectures
Proof [count] 교정쇄
He edited the proofs of the manuscript.
She was checking the proofs of her latest novel.
Discussion [noncount] [count] 토론
The class was involved in a heated discussion about politics.
I hope to have a discussion with them about this matter soon.
After much discussion, the idea was rejected.
During the period under discussion, the town grew in size.
The article is an in-depth discussion of his theories.
The issue is currently under discussion.
Sound [count] [noncount] (귀에 들리는, 물체의) 소리
the sound of footsteps
I heard a loud sound.
They never made a sound.
She showed me the devices that were used to record sound back then.
Sound [count] 음악이나 연주 스타일(특징)
Their music has a very distinctive and fresh sound.
I like this band’s sound.
The bass drum sounds weren’t that great.
Sound [noncount] 음량
Sound travels more slowly than light.
devices used to record sound
measuring the speed of sound
The film was good, but the sound was poor.
The sound quality of the tapes was excellent.
Sound [singular] 인상, 느낌
I don’t like the sound of that.
From the sound of it, you may have poison ivy.
They had a wonderful time by the sound of it.
Noise [noncount] 소음
I couldn’t hear him over all the noise.
To me, it’s a bunch of noise.
The furnace made a lot of noise.
The machine hardly makes any noise.
Noise [noncount] [count] 물건, 사람 등이 내는 소리
They were noises coming from the basement.
The sink was making a gurgling noise.
Do you hear that banging noise?
Responsibility [noncount] 책임감
He accepted full responsibility for the accident.
The boys denied any responsibility for the damage to the fence.
A terrorist group has claimed responsibility for the bombing.
Responsibility [count] 책임지고 해야할 일
The janitor has many responsibilities.
Mowing the lawn is your responsibility.
Faculty [noncount] 교수진
She’s a member of the Harvard faculty.
a faculty meeting
Faculty [plural] 교수진 [!] 복수형도 faculty 입니다.
The school hired more faculty.
a meeting with students and faculty
Faculty [count] 학과
The Faculty of Arts and Sciences
the Faculty of Law
Faculty [count] 능력
the faculty of hearing/speech
It was sad to see that his mental faculties had begun to fail.
She needs to learn to develop her critical faculties.
She has a faculty of making friends.
the evolution of man’s higher faculties
Explanation [noncount] [count] 설명, 해명
Some of the more technical terms need explanation.
Some of his actions defy explanation.
Did she offer an explanation for the delays?
There are several possible explanations for the oil shortage.
Access [noncount] 접근
All public buildings should provide wheelchair access.
We have Internet access at the library.
They refused to give the police access to their home.
A dirt road provides access to the home.
Nutrition [noncount] 영양섭취
The speaker discussed diet and nutrition with the class.
good nutrition and proper exercise
Nutrient [count] 영양분
Fruits and vegetables have important nutrients.
The soil is low in nutrients.
You need more nutrients in your diet.
Nourishment [noncount] 자양분
These children are suffering because they lack proper nourishment.
Soil provides nourishment to plants.
Subsistence [noncount] 존재, 생존, “최저한도의” 생계수단이나 양식
They depended on hunting and fishing for subsistence.
Farming is their means of subsistence.
subsistence farming/ agriculture/ crops
More than a quarter of the population lives below (the) subsistence level.
They had no visible means of subsistence.
[!] subsistence와 비슷한 의미를 가진 sustenance도 살펴봅시다.
Sustenance [noncount] 생계의 수단, 자양분 = nourishment
There’s not much sustenance in a bowl of soup.
She draws spiritual sustenance from daily church attendance.
reading for intellectual sustenance
The village depends on the sea for sustenance.
Taste [count] [noncount] 맛
a salty/bitter/sweet taste
I don’t like the taste of olives.
The soup has very little taste.
The wine had a slightly bitter taste.
Do you want a taste?
Just have a taste of your ice cream?
I detected a strong taste of ginger in the sauce.
Taste [singular] (경험) 맛
It was her first taste of success.
That first storm was just a taste of things to come.
This was my first taste of live theater.
Although we didn’t know it, this incident was a taste of things to come.
[!] a taste of things 라는 표현을 알아둡시다!
Taste [noncount] 맛을 알아차리는 능력, 세련된 것을 고르는 능력 (취향, 감각)
The food was very pleasing to the taste.
I’ve lost my sense of taste.
She is a person of taste.
The way he dresses shows that he has no taste.
The room was decorated with taste.
She is a person of taste.
He has very good taste in music.
The’ve got more money than taste.
[!] ~ is not good/pleasing to the taste 라는 표현도 알아둡시다!
Taste [noncount] [count] 사람들이 선호하는 것(선호)
He has no taste for gossip.
The movie was not to their taste.
The music is too loud for my taste.
She has very expensive tastes in clothing.
There are trips to suit all tastes.
Different people have different tastes.
That trip gave me a taste for foreign travel.
They have expensive tastes.
The movie is intended to appeal to popular taste.
[!] vs. Preference [noncount] [count] 선호
Car buyers have recently shown a growing preference for small vehicles.
Everyone has their own preferences.
It is a matter of personal preference.
He tried not to show preference.
in order of preference
[!] Taste와 관련하여 자주 쓰는 표현 몇 개만 알아둡시다.
* to taste 간이 맞게
Add salt and pepper to taste.
* (get/have) a taste/dose of one’s own medicine 자기가 한 대로 당하는 것
Let the bully have a taste of his own medicine.
The movie is about a playboy who gets a taste of his own medicine.
* an acquired taste (처음엔 좋아하지 않았는데 서서히) 좋아하게 된 것
Abstract art is an acquired taste for me.
Brussel sprouts are an acquired taste for many people.
Mind [noncount] [count] 마음
It’s important to be healthy in both mind and body.
He’s in a bad state of mind.
He read great literature to develop/cultivate his mind.
Everyone at the meeting was of like mind.
She is of the same mind as me.
We must appeal to and win (over) the hearts and minds of the people.
Mind [count] (사람의) 지성, 지성을 가진 사람
She has a brilliant mind.
He has an inquisitive mind.
He’s an evil man with a warped mind.
He’s recognized as having one of the sharpest minds in this field.
Many of the world’s greatest minds in physics will be attending the convention.
vs. Mind-set [count] 생각하는 방식이나 태도
politicians trying to understand the mind-set of voters
a conservative/liberal mindset
Management [noncount] 경영, 관리
She’s planning a career in management.
Business improved under the management of new owners.
She’s responsible for the day-to-day management.
Management [noncount] [count] 경영인
To save money, management decided to reduce the size of the staff.
Management and labor could not agree.
He has a job in middle management.
The managements of several top corporations met yesterday.
Pay [noncount] 봉급 (money)
receiving higher/better/lower pay
The pay is good.
a week’s pay
I can collect overtime pay this week.
Payroll [count] 봉급 지급 명부(on the payroll), 직원 수, 봉급총액
They cut him from their payroll.
Her company has over 3,000 employees on the payroll.
Businesses are keeping their payrolls low by embracing new technologies. (봉급총액)
They have an annual payroll of 23 million dollars. (봉급총액)
Manufacturing payrolls have dropped by 16,000 (직원 수)
자, 이제 어느 정도 셀 수 있는 명사와 셀 수 없는 명사에 대한 개념이 어떤 명사가 잡히실 거라고 봅니다. 강의노트에서 다룬 단어는 지극히 제한적이라서 ‘여기서 배우지 않은 단어는 어떻게하지??’ 라고 당황하실 수도 있지만 전혀 필요 없습니다. 앞으로 공부하면서 나오는 단어가 count인지 noncount인지 알고싶다면 사전을 꼭 뒤져보시기 바랍니다.
참고사전 1 : 메리엄 웹스터 러너스 딕셔너리 – http://www.learnersdictionary.com/
참고사전 2 : 옥스퍼드 러너스 딕셔너리 – http://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/
* 셀 수 없는 명사…파트에 대한 결론
셀 수 있는 명사와 셀 수 없는 명사를 구별할 때는 단순히 ‘단어의 생김새’가 아니라 ‘단어가 문맥에서 가진 의미’를 보고 파악해야합니다. 셀 수 없는 명사로 평소에 쓰더라도 문맥에서 “셀 수 있을 만한 범위나 종류”에 대해서 말할 땐 셀 수 있는 명사로 둔갑합니다. 문맥에 따라 특정 단어가 셀 수 있는 명사로 쓰일 만한 이유가 있다는 겁니다.
우리는 보통 문법책에서 명사를 두 부류로 나눕니다. 셀 수 있는 명사와 그렇지 않은 명사로 나누어서 셀 수 있으면 a를 붙인다고 하죠. 하지만 룰이 그렇게 단순한 것이 아닙니다. 셀 수 있는 명사라서 무조건 a를 붙이는게 아니라 “글을 쓰는 사람 혹은 발화하는 사람”이 ‘a에’ 명사를 붙여서 그 명사를 어떤 의미로 쓴 것인지 알려주는 것이지요.
… 예문을 엄청나게 많이 봤는데.. 이걸 다 외울 수는 없으므로 관사는 입에 익히는게 제맛입니다. (그래서 미드/영드/영화를 많이보고 원서를 많이 읽는게 좋은겁니다) 제가 이 파트 관련해서는 특별히 예시단어나 문장을 많이 수록하였습니다. 강의노트에 수록된 것이라면 단 한문장도 빼놓지말고 다 보길바랍니다. 그 정도 양의 예문을 봐야 감이 생길겁니다 😀