셀 수 없는 명사 (Uncountable nouns) 1부 – 그러나, 셀 수 있는 명사들
품질(qualities), 물질(substances), 과정(processes), 주제(topics)등 에 대해 설명하는 명사의 경우 셀 수 없는 명사가 대부분입니다.
[!] 여기서 품질, 물질, 과정, 주제면 셀 수 없는 명사다! 라고 단편적으로 암기하지마세요.
그냥 두루뭉술한 법칙일 뿐 예문을 보고 예시단어를 본 후 익숙해지는 편이 더 낫습니다.
셀 수 없는 명사들은 복수형이 없습니다. 셀 수 없으니 당연히 복수형은 없죠.
또한 a/an 등 단수를 나타내는 관사를 붙이지 않습니다.
‘하나’라고 표현할 수 없으니 a/an은 쓸모가 없다고 보면 됩니다.
그리고 동사는 단수동사가 함께 옵니다.
The office furniture is wearing out.
[office furniture 셀 수 없는 명사 – is 단수동사]
Love makes you do stupid things.
[love 셀 수 없는 명사 – makes 단수동사]
* 우리는 아래 표에 나오는 단어를 셀 수 없는 명사에 속한다고 배웁니다.
<표 : 셀 수 없는 명사 리스트>
[!] 여기서 중요한 점은.. 위 단어중 “진짜 셀 수 없는 명사”와 “사실은 세기도 하는 명사”가 나눠진다는 겁니다. 저번시간에 설명드렸듯 명사의 수량은 “센다” vs “세지 않는다” 이렇게 두 개로 확실히 나누어지는게 아니거든요 ㅠㅠ 그럼 저 표에 나온 단어들을 조금 더 파헤쳐봅시다. 미리 알려드리자면 … 한국문법책에 절대 셀 수 없다고 알려주는 ‘knowledge’도 셀 수 있습니다…ㅎㅎ..
* 그렇다면 위 단어 중 “진짜”, “거의” 셀 수 없는 명사들은 누가 있을까요?
equipment 설비, 도구
news 뉴스 [!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 많이 틀리는 단어!
advice 조언 [!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 많이 틀리는 단어!
stuff 물건 등 [!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 자주 틀리는 단어입니다!
furniture 가구류 [!] 이건 책에서도 자주 봤을겁니다!
homework 숙제 [!] schoolwork, classwork 도 셀 수 없습니다. cf) assignment는 셀 수 있고요!
flesh 살, 피부, 실체 / (과일) 과육
baggage, luggage 짐
spite 악의, 앙심
traffic 자동차 등 탈 것의 ‘집합’, 교통량
welfare 복지(금), 안녕, 후생
salt 소금 cf. technical terms – 화학물질 일 때는 셀 수 있음
music 음악 cf. songs – 노래 한 곡, 두 곡은 셀 수 있음
research 연구 [!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 자주 틀리는 단어입니다!
training 훈련 [!] 학생들이 셀 수 있는 명사로 취급하여 자주 틀리는 단어입니다!
위 표에서 저 단어들 빼고는 다 셀 수 있는 의미로도 쓴다는겁니다. 그 단어들은 어떤 것이 있고, 셀 때와 셀 수 없을 때 의미는 어떻게 다른지 알아봅시다. 단어 옆 [noncount] 의 경우에는 셀 수 없는 명사라는 뜻이고, [count]는 셀 수 있는 명사, [singular]은 단수로만 사용하는 경우, [plural]은 항상 복수로만 사용한다는 뜻입니다.
Food [noncount] 먹을 것, 음식
a farmer who grows his own food
Food [count] 음식류
an important food
fruits, vegetables, and other healthy foods
Drink [noncount] 마실 것, 습관적 음주
Food and drink will be served.
The stress of the job drove Jack to drink.
She took to drink(drinking) after her divorce. (술을 많이 마시기 시작하다)
[!] take to (doing something) : ~를 시작하여 금방 습관이 되다.
He took to drinking after his divorce.
She had taken to sleeping on the couch.
We’ve taken to calling him “Mr.Know-It-All.”
Drink [count] 음료, 술, (일정한 양의) 마실 물 등의 액체
He went to the bar for a few drinks.
Can you get him another drink?
Give the dog a drink of water.
They went for a drink.
The drinks are on me.
[singular] 마시는 행위(act)
He took a long drink from the glass.
[plural] 술이 많이 있는 특별한 행사
Would you like to come for drinks on this Saturday?
A drinks party
Industry [noncount] 근면성실
We were impressed by their industry.
Mary is admired for her industry.
[noncount] (공장 등에서) 제품 생산 (production)
She got a job in industry.
He only likes policies that promote industry.
the needs of American industry
[!] production 이라는 단어의 경우에도 noncount의 의미가 지배적입니다.
production은 팔거나 사용하기 위해 제품을 생산하는 것, 생산량을 뜻하는 단어입니다.
agricultural/ food/ steel production
Next year’s airplane models are already in production.
The airplane is now out of production.
a decline/an increase in production
The annual production of coal.
위의 예에서 보듯 [noncount]의 뜻으로 사용을 하는 경우가 대부분입니다.
다만 무대(공연/작품)에 대해 말할 때는 [count]로 사용합니다.
We saw a stage production of the novel.
a new production of ‘Hamlet’
Industry [count] 사업체 (company)
We need to develop local industries.
She invested in several local industries.
Maggie became so popular that a whole industry grew up around her.
[!] company가 셀 수 있는 명사인 것과 마찬가지로 industry가 company의 의미로 쓰이는 경우 셀 수 있게 됩니다.
Religion [noncount] 믿음, 종교
Many people turn to religion for comfort in a time of crisis.
They advocated for freedom of religion.
Is there always a conflict between science and religion?
[!] in a time of crisis, in times of crisis 는 자주 쓰는 표현이니 암기해두도록 합시다.
Religion [count] (여러 다른) 종교, 의식 등
There are many religions, such as Buddhism, Christianity, Hinduism, and Judaism.
It is against my religion to drink alcohol.
For him, football is an absolute religion. [주로 singular]
Marriage [noncount] 결혼한 상태, 결혼이라는 개념
She doesn’t believe in marriage.
My parents are celebrating 40 years of marriage.
Marriage [count] 결혼한 두 사람의 관계(결혼생활), 결혼 제도, 결혼의 횟수 등
a happy marriage
This is my second marriage.
I don’t understand the concept of an arranged marriage.
Her first two marriages ended in divorce.
Happiness [noncount] 행복한 정신상태
They made a toast to long life and happiness.
to find true happiness
Happiness [count] 행복한 일이나 경험
I wish them every happiness.
All happinesses are alike.
In the near future, our current happinesses and unhappinesses will no longer exist.
Absence [noncount] 결석한 상태
The case was dismissed in the absence of any definite proof.
Absence [count] 결석(일), 부재
The decision was made in my absence.
You are going to be punished for your repeated absences from school.
He had many absences from work.
a complete absence of humor
Education [noncount] 교육을 받는 행위, 교육학(학문)
He had little formal education. (=schooling)
She earned her master’s degree in education.
This program is for students in full-time education.
[!] 첫 번째 예문에서 나온 schooling도 [noncount] 입니다.
The man had little schooling. 으로 씁니다.
Education [count/singular] 교육 (학위), 교육의 기회
a college education
Most of the applicants had comparable educations.
She received a college education at a private school.
The rock concerts were quite an education for my parents.
Help [noncount] 도움
He thanked us for our help.
I could use some help with the dishes.
She is very unhappy and needs some professional help.
Help [count] 도움을 주는 사람이나 물건
He has been more of a hindrance than a help.
She has always been a real help.
[count] 가사도우미나 일손 (help 라고 적고 복수취급)
The help have already left for the day.
We need to hire additional help.
Pleasure [noncount] 행복감, 만족감
He smiled with pleasure.
She takes pleasure in her work.
Is this trip for business or pleasure?
Pleasure [count] 행복감이나 만족감을 주는 사람이나 사물, 기회 등
It is a special pleasure for me to be here with you today.
Dark chocolate is a guilty pleasure of mine.
It has been a pleasure working with you.
Status [noncount] 지위, 상태
She married a man of status and wealth.
He likes his job and the high (social) status.
She updated her Facebook status to ‘in a relationship’.
Status [count] (여러 사람 각자의) 지위, 위치(직함)
People of different social and economic statuses
to have a high social status
Power [noncount] (정치적, 사회적, 신체적, 물체의) 힘, 정치적 통치권
She is from a very wealthy family with a lot of social power.
The president was removed from power in the recent uprising.
Getting a house clean required lots of muscle power.
a telescope of high power
Power [count] 영향을 끼치는 세력(사람이나 회사)
Our state is now the region’s leading economic power.
ELTRON has grown to become a power in the industry.
He has the power to make things very difficult for all of us.
[count] 능력 (=ability) 이라는 의미로 쓰인 경우
You have the power to change your life.
It is in your power to change the way things are done.
He is studying the healing powers of various plants.
[!] ability 도 noncount, count 모두 가능한 단어입니다.
Technology [noncount] 기술
The company is on the cutting edge of technology.
Recent advances in medical technology have saved countless lives.
[!] the cutting edge of something : ~의 최신 기술
at/on the cutting edge of something : ~의 최신 기술을 가진 상태에 있는
He’s a director who tries to keep his companies right on the cutting edge.
The research we’ve been doing is at/on the cutting edge of Neuroscience.
a cutting edge = an advantage point 이점
We’re relying on him to give the team a cutting edge.
cutting-edge (형용사) 최첨단의
– 자주 쓰는 표현들이니 알아둡시다.
Technology [count] 기계나 기술적인 방법, 장비
The government is developing innovative technologies to improve the safety of its soldiers.
We do our best to make use of the most modern technologies.
Pride [noncount] 자부심
I had to swallow my pride and admit that I made a mistake.
Pride would not allow her to give up.
The sight of her son holding the trophy filled her with pride.
He takes pride in his work.
[!] take pride in something : ~에 자부심을 느끼다 – 자주 쓰는 표현이니 알아둡시다.
Pride [count/singular] 자부심을 주는 물건 또는 사람
He showed a great/immense pride in his family.
These young people are the pride of their community.
Time [noncount] 시간
The time passed slowly. (/quickly)
The two events were separated by time and space.
We’ll be arriving at 9:00 a.m. local time.
Time [count] 시절, 시간대, 시대, 회(한 번, 여러 번)
It is unusually hot for this time of year.
He has to go to the classes at certain times of the month.
Do you remember the time we got lost in LA?
This is my first time on an airplane.
I can’t remember the time when I’ve been happier.
It happened a long time ago.
She served in the military for a time in her early twenties.
There is a time and a place for everything.
[!] time 과 같이 뜻이 여러 개(..혹은 너무 많은) 단어의 경우에는 뜻마다 count/noncount를 암기하는 것보다는
자주 사용하는 ‘표현자체’를 암기해두는게 좋습니다.
this time/ certain times/ the time/ my first(second time)/ a long time / a time 등으로 외워두세요!
[!] for a time 의 경우 주로 짧은 기간인 경우를 말합니다.
그런 적이 있다, 그랬었다 – 정도로 해석하면 됩니다.
Atmosphere [noncount] “좋은” 분위기
a country inn with lots of atmosphere
The food was good but the restaurant has no atmosphere.
Atmosphere [count] 대기, 분위기
Experts have noticed changes in the atmosphere.
The planets have different atmospheres.
The inn has a romantic atmosphere.
Beauty [noncount] 아름다움, 미
Jenny’s beauty is beyond compare.
the beauty of the sunset
The beauty of the game is that everyone can win.
Beauty [count] 아름다운 여자, 예쁜 것, 좋은 면
She was one of the great beauties of her time.
She had been a beauty in her day.
One of the beauties of living here is that it’s so peaceful.
Transport [noncount] 운반하는 행위(이송), 교통기관, 탈 것(transportation)
the transport of manufactured goods
All goods were damaged during transport.
He relies on public transport.
We were left without transport when his car broke down.
Transport [count] 수송차량 (선박이나 항공)
a troop transport
[!] transport를 transportation과 혼용해서 쓰는 것은 ‘영국영어’입니다.
[!] 유사한 단어로 transit 이라는 단어도 있습니다. 이 단어는 셀 수 없는 단어에 속합니다.
보통 in transit, public transit 이라는 표현을 많이 씁니다.
Some of the goods were lost in transit.
the problems of urban transit
the city’s mass transit system
the city’s public transit system
increased funding for public transit
* 여기서 funding 이라는 단어는 [noncount] 입니다.
* fund vs. funds vs. funding
Fund [count] (어떤 목적에) 사용할 돈의 양, 모아둔 돈의 양/ 모아둔 것
the library’s book fund
The fund was established to aid the poor in town.
a fund to buy instruments for young musicians
She had a huge fund of knowledge, skill, and experience.
The comedian had a large fund of jokes.
Funds [plural] 기금, 모금, 사용가능한 돈
raising campaign funds
I’m a little short of funds right now.
All her funds were in a checking account.
I’m a little low on funds just now.
* raise funds (= collect money) – I’m not sure I can raise the funds for the holiday.
Funding [noncount] 특별한 목적을 위한 돈
The program heavily relies on funding from the state.
There have been large cuts in government funding for medical research.
The government is still failing to provide adequate funding for research.
Public funding of the arts is essential.
an increase in the funding of health care
* funding of/for
* government/public/state funding
Security [noncount] 안전, 공항의 보안수색대
The criminals were caught on a security video.
My bag was emptied and searched when I went through security yesterday.
Job security is a thing of the past.
Security [plural] 담보, 유가증권
security for a loan
[!] security를 셀 수 있는 명사로 사용하는 경우는 평소 알던 뜻과 완전히 다르니 유의해야합니다.
Silence [noncount] 침묵, 침묵의 상태
We sat there in complete silence.
You don’t have to suffer in silence.
I need absolute silence when I’m working.
Silence [count] 침묵의 시간
A long silence followed her reply.
There was an awkward silence after he confessed his sin.
I got used to his long silences.
Fear [noncount] 두려움의 상태
I trembled with fear.
She won’t say anything for fear of losing the job.
Fear [count] 두려워하는 감정, 두려워하는 대상
The doctor’s diagnosis confirmed my worst fears.
My mom has a morbid fear of cats.
Most employees expressed fears that the company would go out of business soon.
Finance [noncount] 재정 (돈을 다루는 방법)
She is taking a course at university on personal finance.
an expert in finance
Finance [plural] 정부, 사업 또는 개인이 쓸 돈(funds), 돈에 관한 문제(problem)
The library closed due to a lack of finances.
Her finances were in bad shape.
His health problems have put a serious strain on his finances.
Travel [noncount] 여행을 하는 행위
She doesn’t enjoy foreign travel that much.
Air travel was being affected by the storm.
Travel [plural] (먼 곳으로의) 여행 (trips)
She enjoys travels in foreign lands.
They extended their travels for another week.
Snow [noncount] 눈
Snow fell heavily all day long.
She took a walk in the snow.
Snow [count] 눈밭 등
A light/heavy snow was falling.
the snows of the Rocky Mountains
Soon the sun will melt the winter snows.
Victory [noncount] 성공, 승리
They had never experienced the thrill of victory.
Union leaders are heading for victory in their battle over workplace rights.
He had a sense of their silent victory.
Victory [count] 적군의 패배시키는 행위, 승리의 경험
The passage of law was a tremendous victory for their cause.
The judge’s ruling has been hailed as a victory for freedom of speech.
Capacity [noncount] [count] (정신적, 감정적, 신체적) 능력, ~을 할 수 있는 능력 (ability)
Some species of birds do not have the capacity to fly.
Does she have the capacity to handle this job?
Jerry has an enormous capacity for hard work.
the machine’s computational capacities
Capacity [noncount] 생산, 관리가능한 (maximum) 정도
a plan to double the factory’s capacity
The factory is currently running at three-quarter capacity. (full capacity에 비교하여 4분의 3으로 현재 작동 중)
The prison has reached capacity.
The concert hall was filled to capacity.
Capacity [noncount] [count] 사람이나 사물을 담을 수 있는 양, 능력 (주로 단수로)
The restaurant has a large seating capacity.
The nightclub has a 1,000-person capacity.
a bottle with a capacity of two liters
Capacity [noncount] [count] ~을 할 수 있는 능력
the machine’s computational capacities (=capabilities)
Capacity [count] 공적인 직책
She worked for the company in various capacities over the past ten years.
[!] Capacity가 Ability와 유사한 의미로 사용되었을 때는 Ability의 쓰임과도 유사합니다.
Ability는 세기도 하고, 세지 않기도 합니다. 특별히 의미에 차이가 있다기보다는 문맥상 어떤 단어와 오는지,
어떤 의미를 나타내는지에 따라 다르니 예문을 잘 살펴보셔야 합니다.
noncount로 사용할 때는 주로 ‘재능이나 능력’을 뜻하는 경우고, count로 사용할 때는 ‘잘하는 것들’이라는 의미입니다.
Ability [noncount] [count] 능력, 잘하는 것(들)
a young boy with many remarkable artistic abilities
a teacher with an ability to inspire his students
Maggie has shown some ability with foreign languages.
Almost everyone has some musical ability.
Childhood [noncount] 어린 때
I remember this place from childhood.
in early childhood
I’m studying diseases that can occur in childhood.
Childhood [count] (어떤 사람의) 어린 시절
Both men had unhappy childhoods.
She had a happy childhood.
Hair [noncount] 머리, 머리스타일
The hair on her arms is blond.
Your hair looks nice.
She has long straight hair,
Hair [count] 머리카락(올)
He plucked a hair from his leg.
There were dog hairs all over her coat.
[!] 팔과 다리에 난 ‘털’도 hair라고 합니다.
History [noncount] 역사 (과거), 역사상
I studied history in college.
They were one of the greatest teams in history.
History has shown that such attempts have always failed.
You can’t rewrite history.
The company has been successful throughout its history.
History [count] 역사가 적힌 기록, 경력
He wrote a well-known history of the British empire.
The book begins with a brief history of the Internet.
The prisoner has a history of violence.
He has a history of violent crime.
There is a history of heart disease in my family.
a patient’s medical history
Policy [noncount] [count] 정책
They voted to adopt more liberal trade policies.
The company has adopted a firm policy on shoplifting.
They have had a significant change in policy on paternity leave.
Each employee is given a handbook on company policy.
Policy [usually singular] 신념
I make it a policy not to lend my friends money.
Honesty is the best policy.
She is following her usual policy of ignoring all offers of help.
[!] policy가 noncount로 쓰일 때는 ‘정책 하나’, ‘특정 정책’을 지칭하기보다 전반적인 정책 사항들(집합개념)의 의미입니다.
Age [noncount] 시대, 나이대
a group of children ranging in age from 8 to 11
More people now live to extreme old age.
The program is for people over age 50.
She became involved with a man twice her age.
[!] ‘at age(at the age of) + 숫자’ : ~살에 – 라는 표현이니 그대로 외워두시면 편합니다.
He joined the company at age 40.
He went back to school at age 50.
Age [count] (각 사람의) 나이
Some people are reluctant to reveal their ages.
He joined the company at the age of 35.
The movie appeals to people of all ages.
The book is popular among men of a certain age.
Energy [noncount] [count] 에너지
The kids are always so full of energy.
She puts a lot of energy into her work.
They devoted all their energies to the completion of the project.
She put all her energies into her work.
[!] energy 예문을 보면 같은 의미지만 세기도하고, 세지 않기도 합니다.
대신 noncount 일때는 effort[noncount] 와 비슷한 의미이고, count 일 때는 effort [count]와 의미가 비슷합니다.
Effort [noncount] 노력(정신)
It wasn’t easy, but it was worth the effort.
We need to expend more effort.
He put a lot of effort into this.
Effort [count] 노력(들) – 정신적이나 노력의 상태가 아닌, 시도나 일을 하는 노력 등
Our success is due to the combined efforts of many people.
Her efforts were rewarded with a new contract.
Ice [noncount/singular] 얼음, 빙판(the ice)
The steps were coated with ice.
Fill the glass with ice.
The dancers came out onto the ice.
Ice [count/old-fashioned] 아이스크림 <영국>
Drinks, ices and popcorn are all on sale.
[!] policy, energy, effort, ice 등은 유사한 의미인데도 noncount, count 모두 사용가능합니다.
이런 단어들은 예문을 보고 어떤 경우에 어떻게 사용하는지 익숙해지는 것이 좋습니다!
Poverty [noncount/singular] 가난, 부족(lack)
He came from poverty.
He was born in poverty.
There is a poverty of information about the disease.
[!] ‘부족’을 뜻하는 단어 ‘lack’ 역시 [noncount/singular] 입니다.
The problem is a lack of money.
a lack of experience and knowhow
He has been suffering from a lack of sleep lately.
I’ve lost those skills through lack of practice.
His problem is lack of sleep.
lack은 정확히 같은 문장 안에도 a를 붙이거나 떼도 의미가 동일한 경우도 있습니다.
이런 경우에 count/noncount를 결정하는 것은 ‘필자의 선택’ 입니다.
Money [noncount] 돈
He made his money in the insurance business.
That painting must be worth a lot of money.
The town is raising money for the elementary school.
Friends would always ask her for money.
Money [plural/formal] – monies, moneys 돈의 양, 합계
a statement of all monies paid into your account
Most of the project is being paid by federal monies.
All monies received will de deposited in a special bank account.
[!] money를 복수형으로 쓰는 경우는 매우 드물지만..
그렇다고 불가능한 건 아닙니다.. 🙂
Death [noncount] 죽음 (삶의 끝)
She is close to death.
The newspaper did not report the cause of death.
Death [count] (어떤 이의) 사망, 죽은 상황
The accident resulted in two deaths.
The number of deaths from cancer is rising.
There has been a death in the family.
She died a natural death.
Death [noncount/literary] 저승사자, 죽음
Death is often shown in paintings as a human skeleton.
when Death comes to take me away,
Democracy [noncount] 민주주의라는 ‘개념’
The nation has chosen democracy over monarchy.
the principles of democracy
There is democracy within the company.
Democracy [count] 민주주의인 나라, 기관, 회사 등
In a democracy, every citizen should have the right to vote.
Western democracies (=Western democratic countries)
The company is not a democracy. (=The company is not a democratic company.)
[!] democracy와 비슷한 맥락으로 ‘government’ 도 count, noncount일 때 뜻이 변합니다.
Government [count] 한 나라(주)의 정부, 기관
She works for the federal government.
the British government
a corrupt government
to lead a government
Government [noncount] 나라, 주를 다스리는 방식
He is a firm believer in representative government.
We learned about different systems of government.
Teaching [noncount] 가르치는 일
He went into teaching after college.
He has now retired from full-time teaching.
How much teaching do you actually do?
Teaching [count] 수업, 가르침 (lesson)
The culture is based in the teachings of Confucius.
He followed the teachings of the Bible on this subject.
They were obliged to study the teachings of Marx and Lenin in schools.
Environment [noncount] [count] 환경
He grew up in a loving environment.
a pleasant working environment
to protect the environment
tests carried out in a controlled environment
Heredity and environment are both important.
[!] Environment는 대부분의 경우에 셀 수 있는 명사로 사용합니다.
Comfort [noncount] 안락한 상태
These boots provide warmth and comfort in the coldest temperatures.
I found a cozy chair where I could read in comfort.
The suites combine comfort with convenience.
Comfort [count] 위안이 되는 물건, 사람
They were great comforts to each other during that difficult time.
Her grandchildren were always a great comfort to her.
Comforts [plural] 편안함을 주는 물건들, 서비스
The hotel has all modern comforts.
a country inn with all the comforts of home
Concern [noncount] [count] 걱정하는 마음, 걱정거리
They have expressed concern about the cost of the project. (걱정하는 마음)
= They have raised concerns about the cost of the project. (이것 저것 걱정스러운 마음)
I share your concern about these problems.
There is some concern that the economy might worsen.
The mayor needs to address voter’s concerns.
She has always shown a genuine concern for the poor.
Concern [count] 걱정을 끼치는 사물이나 사람
Their friend’s health is a constant concern.
= Their friend’s health is a constant source of concern.
The economy is one of our main concerns.
Paying for the tickets is your concern.
Cancer [noncount] [count] 암
He was diagnosed with cancer.
Advanced cancers are more difficult to treat.
Cancer [count] 악의 근원
Her jealousy was a cancer that slowly destroyed her marriage.
Drugs and violence have become a cancer in the city.
Cancer [noncount] 게자리 [count] 게자리인 사람
I’m a Taurus, but my best friend is a Cancer.
cf) I’m a Virgo, and my sister is a Scorpio.
[!] cancer과 disease를 비교해보세요. 아주 비슷한 점을 발견하실 겁니다!
Disease [noncount] [count] 질병
a deadly disease
He suffers from a rare blood disease.
Thousands die of heart disease each year.
They are working to stop the spread of disease in rural areas.
Disease [count] 문제, 병
The article cites intolerance as one of the most dangerous of society’s diseases.
Ground [noncount] 흙, 땅
planting seeds in the ground
They built their house on flat ground.
Ground [noncount] 믿음
The two sides are trying to find some common ground.
When a politician talks about raising taxes, he’s on dangerous ground.
Ground [count] 특정한 목적으로 사용하는 땅이나 부지
a camping ground
an ancient burial ground
Grounds [usually plural] 타당한 이유
The company has been accused of discriminating on the grounds of race.
Her husband’s infidelity was grounds for divorce.
The case was dismissed on the grounds that there was not enough evidence.
Ground [singular] 어떤 물체나 사람을 테스트하는 곳
The lab has become a testing ground for ideas about the origins of the universe.
[!] ground 라는 단어는 the ground 지표면(땅) 이라고 자주 표현합니다.
An apple fell to the ground.
The flight was watched by many people on the ground.
They were sitting on the ground.
Faith [noncount] 믿음(이라는 추상적 개념)
His supporters have accepted his claims with blind faith.
His parents have always had faith in him.
I have no faith in you.
I have no faith in politicians.
Faith [count] 종교 (믿음체계) = religion
The children are learning to understand people of different faiths.
Confidence [noncount] 자신감
The class gave me more confidence.
He has a lot of confidence in himself.
They have complete confidence in their coach.
Her parents had confidence in their daughter’s ability to succeed.
Confidence [count] 비밀 (a secret)
close friends sharing confidences
She accused him of betraying a confidence.
Mercy [noncount] 자비
He is a vicious criminal who deserves no mercy.
Have you no mercy?
May God have mercy on us all.
an act of mercy
Mercy [count] 좋은 일, 다행인 일
We should be grateful for small mercies.
It’s a mercy that the building was empty when the fire started.
Fire [noncount] 불
Stay away from the fire.
Fire [noncount] 총쏘기
We heard heavy rile fire in the distance.
He and the police officer exchanged fire.
Hold your fire!
Fire [count] [noncount] 화재, 모닥불
The shack was destroyed by a fire.
Two people died in that terrible fire.
Police think he set a fire in the bedroom.
Someone set fire to the shack.
She built a fire in the fireplace.
Youth [noncount] 젊음(의 상태), 어린시절
He got into a lot of trouble in his youth.
He spent his youth in the Midwest.
Youth [singular] 어린시절
Ron had a troubled youth.
Maggie had a privileged youth.
Youth [count] 소년, 젊은 남자
a tough-looking youth
Four youths are suspected of starting the fire.
Conflict [count] 싸움, 반대의견
an armed conflict
a conflict between two gangs
I don’t see any conflicts between the theories.
Conflict [noncount] 마찰, 불협화음
Everyone in my family always tries to avoid conflict.
recent violent conflict in the region
conflict between good and evil
Knowledge [noncount] 지식
She has little knowledge of cooking.
a thirst for knowledge
Did you have any knowledge of her intentions?
It’s common knowledge that she plans to run for mayor.
His legal problems are a matter of public knowledge.
[!] knowledge를 센다니 좀 충격적이지요….ㅎㅎ
절대 셀 수 없다고 우리나라 문법교과서 90%가 넘는 곳에 나와있는 것 같은데…
단어 하나를 가지고 셀 수 있다, 없다라고 칼같이 나눠서 외우게 하는 건 일본, 한국식이라고 합니다.
영미권에서도 물론 countable, uncountable nouns 라고 나누기는 하는데 ‘주로 그렇게 쓰이는 단어들’이라고 묶는 정도입니다.
[!] 위 예문에 나오는 ‘run for mayor’ 에서 mayor (시장) 은 주로 countable noun 입니다.
시장은 한 명인지 두 명인지 셀 수 있으니까요. 그런데 ‘시장직에 출마하다’ 라고 할 때는 관사가 없이 옵니다.
[!] common knowledge, public knowledge는 많이들 쓰는 표현이니 꼭 외워둡시다.
Knowledge [count] 지식 (뭉치)
a knowledge of carpentry
She gained/ acquired a thorough knowledge of local customs.
I have a reading knowledge of English.
Depression [noncount] 우울한 상태
anger, anxiety and depression
periods of depression
She has been undergoing treatment for deep depression.
Depression [count] 경제공황 (기간)
After several years of an economic boom, it looks as though we may be heading toward a depression.
He grew up during the Great Depression.
The stock market crash marked the start of a severe depression.
Depression [count] 움푹 패인 곳
The photographs show depressions in the moon’s surface.
Rainwater collects in shallow depressions on the ground.
Design [noncount] [count] 디자인, 설계
I love the sculpture’s design.
The machine had a flawed design.
the design and development of new products
Design [count] 디자인 도면(설계 계획), 패턴
Can I see the designs (plans) for both bridges?
The wallpaper in the bedroom has a floral design (patterns).
[!] by design 설계된 바에 의하면, 계획하여 – 라는 뜻으로 자주 쓰는 표현입니다.
The meeting happened by accident, not by design.
The motor is loud by design.
Duty [noncount] [count] 의무, 군복무
They helped her out of a sense of duty.
Please report for duty at 7 a.m.
She has a variety of duties.
He has a duty to support his family.
His main duty at the event is to take attendance.
Her brother returned from duty overseas. (군복무)
Duty [noncount] [count] 세금
All goods had a 15 percent import duty.
We had to pay duty on our souvenirs.
[!] 세금을 뜻하는 ‘tax’ 라는 단어도 알아보고 갑시다.
tax [count] 세금 (여러 종류의 세금)
The decision was made to raise taxes.
He was accused of evading taxes.
What was your income before taxes?
a tax on tobacco products
tax [noncount] 세금
What is the amount of tax to be paid?
What was your income before tax? (위에서 taxes도 된다고 되어있죠!)
What was your income after tax?
Earth [singular/noncount] 지구, 세상
Neither the Earth nor the Moon is a perfect sphere.
life on earth
the planet Earth = Earth
We could almost feel the earth shake.
Many species are in danger of vanishing from the earth.
God of heaven and earth, I cry to you!
[!] 행성일 때는 주로 Earth, 땅일 때는 earth로 대소문자를 구별합니다. Earth가 고유명사로 쓰이는 경우 the를 사용하지 않고(ex. Mercury is also the only planet other than Earth that has a global magnetic field.) 그 이외에 일반적으로 ‘지구라는 행성’이라는 뜻으로 쓰일 때는 the를 사용합니다. (ex. the Earth is a globe./ cooling off the Earth / the history of the Earth)
Earth [noncount] 흙
a mound of earth
a pile of damp earth
[!] earth가 흙이라는 뜻으로도 자주 사용되니 꼭 알아두세요!
Evil [noncount] 악(이라는 개념), 악의
the battle of good versus evil
He believed that the would was full of evil.
Evil [count] 사악한 것, 나쁜 점
a necessary evil
all the evils that plague us
They were talking about the evils of alcohol.
[!] The lesser of two evils (=the lesser evil) 두 개의 악 중 그나마 나은 것 – 이라는 표현도 자주 쓰니 알아둡시다.
또한 a necessary evil 필요악 – 이라는 표현도 알아두세요!
He thinks of taxes as a necessary evil.
The loss of jobs is regarded as a necessary evil sometimes.
Existence [noncount] 존재하는 상태
the existence of ghosts
She began to doubt the existence of God.
the largest animal in existence
Existence [count] 삶의 방식(lifestyle)
They enjoyed a comfortable existence.
The family endured a miserable existence in a cramped apartment.
We led a poor but happy enough existence as children.
[!] existence 라는 단어가 ‘삶의 방식’을 나타낼 때 countable 이라고 나옵니다.
같은 뜻을 가진 단어인 lifestyle 역시 주로 countable 로 사용합니다.
She envied the lavish lifestyles of wealthy people.
Eating right and exercising are essential to having a healthy lifestyle.
It was a big change in lifestyle when we moved to the country.
Experience [noncount] 경험하는 과정, 기술이나 지식
The best way to learn is by experience.
We need someone with experience.
I know that from personal experience.
I have little experience with these kinds of issues.
She has five years’ experience as a computer programmer.
Experience [count] (어떤 이에게) 일어난 일로써의 경험
He wrote about his experience as a pilot.
That experience is one I’d rather forget!
She had a frightening experience.
Failure [noncount] 실패, 고장
He was often crippled by his fear of failure.
The accident was caused by engine failure.
The patient was suffering from heart failure.
[!] 3번째 예문을 보면 ‘heart failure’에 관사가 없이 셀 수 없는 명사로 사용됩니다.
그러나 항상 이 표현이 이렇게만 고정되어있다고 생각하면 안됩니다.
예를 들어 ‘The time between heart failures is…’ 라고 할 수 있습니다.
첫 번째 심부전의 경우와 두 번째 심부전 사이 걸리는 시간.. 이라는 뜻이죠.
‘case(경우)’의 의미로 사용될 때는 상식적으로 생각해봐도 복수로 사용이 가능하다는 것을 짐작할 수 있습니다.
정확히 똑같이 생긴 표현의 경우에도 다르게 사용될 수 있으므로 가장 좋은 건 문장을 아주 많이, 많이 보는 것이지요 😀
Failure [count] 실패의 경험(경우), 기계의 결함, 실패자
He became discouraged by his repeated failures in business.
The storm caused power failures in many parts of the city.
The accident was caused by a failure to use proper procedures.
He felt like a failure when he wasn’t accepted into law school.
a serious crop failure (CF. The drought caused crop failure.)
[!] 비슷한 의미를 가진 breakdown 도 비슷하게 사용됩니다.
Breakdown [noncount] 실패, 고장
Frequent equipment breakdown has been a problem at the factory.
trying to prevent breakdown of the health-care system
Breakdown [count] 실패의 경험(경우), 기계의 결함
There has been a breakdown in negotiations.
trying to prevent a breakdown of the health-care system
Fashion [noncount] [count] 패션
the world of fashion
Short skirts are currently in fashion.
Short skirts have come back into fashion.
Those ruffled blouses went out of fashion years ago.
Jewelry and clothing fashions vary with the season.
Fashion [count] 스타일, 방식
We started the meeting in an orderly fashion.
Please exit the building in an orderly fashion.
Fashions in art and literature come and go.
Fashions [plural] 유행하는 옷 스타일
She always wears the latest fashions.
the new season’s fashions
[!] fashion과 비슷한 단어인 ‘style’에 대해서도 한 번 살펴봅시다.
Style [noncount] 스타일, 문체, 특정 양식, 우아함
Short skirts are back in style.
She writes with more attention to style than to content.
The room was decorated in modern style.
Style [count] 특별한 양식(방식)이나 디자인
a new dress style
The car is available in several different styles.
a study of different teaching styles
We stock a wide variety of styles and sizes.
Freedom [noncount] [count] 자유
He thinks children these days have too much freedom.
She has the freedom to do as she likes.
freedom of choice
Thanks to the automobile, Americans soon had a freedom of movement previously unknown.
rights and freedoms guaranteed by the constitution
The women have won many new freedoms for themselves.
One of the most basic freedoms is the right to peace.
Growth [noncount] [singular] 성장
He discovered a substance that promotes the growth of new blood vessels.
She’s concerned that the medication might stunt her child’s growth.
It’s important to prune the bush every year to encourage new growth.
a thick growth of underbrush
The tree has an average annual growth of almost a foot.
Joy [noncount] 행복감
Seeing her again brought tears of joy to my eyes.
Their sorrow turned to joy.
Joy [count] 행복의 근원, 행복감을 주는 물체나 사람
What a joy it was to see her again.
The flowers are a joy to behold!
The game was a joy to watch.
[!] 유사한 의미를 가진 enjoyment도 count, noncount 모두 가능합니다.
Enjoyment [noncount] 즐거움
I read the book strictly for my own enjoyment.
the enjoyment of good health
He always found sports to be a source of great enjoyment.
Enjoyment [count/plural] 즐거움을 주는 물건
life’s simple enjoyments
Children like to share interests and enjoyments with their parents.
Justice [noncount] 정의, 법의 심판
Many people do not believe that justice has been done in his case.
criminals attempting to escape justice
The police couldn’t bring the killer to justice.
a sense of justice
Justice [count] 판사
She is a justice of the state supreme court.
Labor [noncount] [count/plural] 노동, 노동력
A day’s labor should get the job done.
an area in which there is a shortage of cheap labor
Employers are using immigrants as cheap labor.
He rested from his labors.
He was so exhausted from the day’s labors that he went straight to bed.
Labor [noncount] 분만
She went into labor this morning.
She began to experience labor pains this morning.
Labor [count] 분만의 경험
She had a difficult labor.
Love [noncount] 사랑하는 상태나 마음, 사랑
Children need unconditional love from their parents.
he was just a lonely man looking for love.
Love [count] 사랑하는 사람
a lost love
You never forget your first love.
He was her one true love.
Love [singular] 관심
She has a love of history.
Work [noncount] 일, 직장, 노력
She is trying to find work in publishing.
She didn’t come to work today.
She’s not here right now. She’s at work.
Can you describe your work to the class?
Hard work is the key to success.
Work [count] 작품
the complete works of Charles Dickens
the painter’s latest work
Works [plural] 다리, 길, 댐 등의 구조물
engineering works from the 19th century
Works [singular/ plural] 공사장, 공장(factory)
He got a job at a cement/steel works.
The local steel works have shut down.
an engineering works = an engineering factory
the + works [plural] 기계의 움직이는 부품들
the works of a clock
Sleep [noncount/singular] 잠
I just need to get some sleep.
How much sleep did you get last night?
She sang the baby to sleep.
Sometimes all you need to feel better is a good night’s sleep.
The noise woke her from a deep sleep.
Strength [noncount] (물리적) 힘
I was impressed by his strength.
She’s doing exercises to build up the strength in her legs.
Working on a farm requires a lot of physical strength.
His determination shows real strength of character.
There is strength in numbers.
Strength [count] 강점(장점)
We talked about the strengths and weaknesses
The ability to keep calm is one of her many strengths.
Trade [noncount] 무역
the trade between the two countries
Trade between the two countries has increased.
Trade accounts for half of our gross national product.
Trade [count] 사고 판 물건이나 서비스의 양, 물건교환
My cupcake for your brownie is a fair trade.
He works in the retail trade.
The store does a lucrative trade in T-shirts.
Let’s make a trade – my bat for your baseball.
Trade [noncount/count] 기술을 요하는 직업
He was a carpenter by trade.
I am a carpenter by trade. (= I work as a carpenter)
When she leaves school, she wants to learn a trade.
Are you interested in learning a new trade?
She entered the trade just after graduating from high school.
She showed me her paints, brushes, and the other tools of her trade.
a mystery writer who knows all the tricks of his trade
the + trade [singular/plural] 사업영역의 한 부분
Their company is respected and well known in the trade.
They offer discounts to the trade. (같은 사업부문, 회사에서 일하는 사람에게 디스카운트 제공)
[!] trade와 관련하여 stock-in-trade라는 표현도 자주 사용합니다.
[noncount] 명사이며 ‘사람, 회사 등이 자주 하는 일(영업에 사용하는 것 등)/상투적인 것’이라는 뜻입니다.
Ballads were her stock-in-trade.
Sitcoms are the stock-in-trade of the major networks.
Famous people and their private lives are the stock-in-trade of the popular newspapers.
Wealth [noncount] 부
a person of wealth and influence
Her personal wealth is estimated to be around $10 billion.
someone whose sole goal is the accumulation of wealth
Wealth [singular] 많은 양
I was impressed by the wealth of choices.
Libraries offer a wealth of information.
The new manager brings a great wealth of experience to the job.
Emotion [count] 감정
I have mixed emotions. (= mixed feelings)
They expressed mixed emotions at the news.
Emotion [noncount] 감정, 열정
He spoke with great emotion.
Nina was overcome with emotion.
She was overcome by emotion at the news of her friend’s death.
[!] feeling & emotion
Feeling [count] 기분, 관심, 능력
I noticed tingling feelings in my fingers.
I can see that you have strong feelings about this subject.
He’s been troubled by feelings of guilt.
I had a feeling you would say that.
He had the feeling that he was being watched.
a painter with a good feeling (=feel) for color
Feeling [noncount] 감정
He had no feeling in his right leg.
He spoke with feeling about the injustice he had seen.
[!] feeling & feel
Feel [singular] 느낌, 분위기(스타일), 능력(ability)
It had a greasy feel.
The restaurant’s decor has an Asian feel.
We walked around to get a feel for the town.
She has a feel for language.
Truth [noncount] 진실
There’s no truth in anything he says.
There is no truth in the rumors.
Her story contains a grain of truth but also a lot of exaggeration.
[!] 셀 수 없는 경우의 truth는 셀 때, a grain/kernel of truth 라고 표현합니다.
Truth [usually plural] 사실인 것들
Her experience taught her some basic truths about human nature.
She was forced to face up to a few unwelcome truths about her family.
[!] the + truth – the 와 함께 자주 사용합니다.
Are you telling me the truth?
Their experience was simpler but came closer to the truth.
Waste [noncount] [count] 쓰레기
The current system causes a lot of waste.
We need to find ways to reduce unnecessary waste.
disposal of industrial waste
hazardous wastes (=hazardous waste)
Waste [singular] 낭비 [!] a waste of something 이라는 표현 자주 보셨지요?
The show was a waste of money.
The lecture was a waste of time.
Any further investment would be a waste of valuable resources.
That role was a waste of her talents.
Water [noncount] 물, 강이나 바다의 물
Would you like a glass of water?
bottled/ mineral/ spring water
There’s water dripping from the ceiling.
The kids love playing in the water.
A stick was floating on the water.
Water [plural] 특정 장소의 물(바다 등)
frigid northern waters
We are sailing in international waters.
They were fishing in Canadian waters.
Peace [noncount] 평화
After many years of peace, people on both sides were longing for peace.
We said a prayer for world peace.
The two communities live together in peace.
The countries have been at peace for more than a century.
[!] say a prayer : 기도를 드리다, 라는 표현입니다.
Peace [singular] 평화협정, 평화로운 기간
a lasting peace
The two countries have maintained an uneasy peace.
There was a peace of 50 years before war broke out again.
[!] 마지막 예문에 나온 war (전쟁) 이라는 단어는 [noncount] [count] 입니다. 셀지 말지는 필자가 결정합니다.
They fought a war over the disputed territory.
A war broke out when the colonists demanded their independence.
a nuclear war
countries conducting trade wars
the budget wars in Washington
We need to resolve our conflicts without resorting to war.
People behave differently during a time of war.
War could break out soon. (= A war could break out soon.)
The two countries were at war.
Philosophy [noncount] 철학, 철학이라는 학문
a professor of philosophy
Her degree is in philosophy and religion.
Philosophy [count] 사상
The group eventually split over conflicting political philosophies.
the development of different philosophies
developing a personal philosophy
He holds firmly to a Buddhist philosophy of life.
Protection [noncount] 보호
The law ensures your protection from illegal searches.
The witness was placed under police protection.
He fights for the protection of the environment.
Protection [noncount] 보험
The policy offers complete protection against fire and theft.
His store was burned down because he refused to pay for protection.
Protection [noncount] 콘돔
Do you have protection?
Protection [count] 보호장치
protections against sexual harassment
She used her briefcase as a protection from the rain.
Rain [noncount] [count] 비, 비오는 날씨
There will be rain in all parts tomorrow.
Don’t go out in the rain.
The rain poured down.
I think I felt a drop of rain.
The weatherman forecasts rain for this afternoon.
A heavy rain began to fall.
What the garden needs is a good rain.
Rain [singular] 하늘에서 빗줄기처럼 쏟아지는 물체 (a rain of something)
a rain of stones
a rain of arrows
a rain of ash/ashes
Rain [plural] 특정 기간에 많이 내리는 비
The rains came and flooded the valley.
The rains come in September.
[!] 위의 예 중 ‘a rain of ash/ashes’ 에서 ash 살펴보기
ash [noncount] [plural] 재
The town lay under a thick layer of ash.
clouds of hot volcanic ash
The village was covered in ashes.
ashes [plural] 불에 타고 남은 장소들(혹은 비유적 표현)
The city was reduced to ashes by the fire.
= The city was burned to ashes.
Their happiness turned to ashes.
We sifted through the ashes of our ruined lives.
ashes [plural] 사람을 화장한 후 남은 뼈를 갈아 만든 가루
She kept her dead mother’s ashes in a jar above the fireplace.
the ashes of the dead
He asked to have his ashes scattered along the river.
Reality [noncount] 현실
He refused to face reality.
the difference between fiction and reality
She’s out of touch with reality.
He used television as an escape from reality.
They seemed to have the perfect marriage but the reality was very different.
Reality [count] 실제로 일어난 일(event)
The movie shows the grim realities of war.
Her dream of competing in the Olympics became a reality.
Will time travel ever become a reality?
the harsh realities of life
The paperless office is still far from being a reality.
Relief [noncount/singular] 안심, 구호(품), 정부지원금
What a relief it is to be back home.
I felt such a sense of relief after I finished my thesis.
He expressed relief that the crisis was finally over.
I want relief from my headaches.
Countries from around the world have been sending relief to the flood victims.
We donated to the relief effort for the hurricane victims.
My father lost his job and we had to go on relief.
Relief [noncount] 선명함, 뚜렷함
The trees stood in stark relief against the sky.
Her political activism throws the apathy of others into sharp relief.
Their differences have been thrown into sharp relief by the present crisis.
The snow-capped mountain stood out in sharp relief against the blue sky.
[!] put/throw something into (sharp/stark) relief ~을 명확하게 하다
The episode throws into sharp relief the enormous cultural divide between these two communities.
Relief [noncount] [count] 양각, 돋을새김
ancient marble reliefs
The bronze doors are covered with sculpted reliefs.
The column was decorated in high relief.
Relief [count/with singular verb/plural verb] 교대하는 사람, 교대팀
[!] 주로 형용사처럼 명사 앞에 붙여서 사용합니다.
The next crew relief comes on duty at 9.
a relief crew
30,000 troops will be sent abroad as relief for the deployed soldiers.
The relief driver took over after the midway point of the race.
Respect [noncount] 존경, 존중
The soldier saluted as a sign of respect.
She has a lot of respect for his opinion.
Despite our differences, I have enormous respect for him.
She showed no respect for my feelings.
I expect to be treated with respect.
A two-minute silence was held as a mark of respect.
He has no respect for her feelings.
to show a lack of respect for authority
[!] with + respect / respect + for 가 자주 함께 다닙니다.
Respect [singular/count] 존경하는 마음, 존중하는 마음
I have a great respect for his accomplishments.
He has a healthy respect for the dangers of the work he does.
They instilled in their children a respect for Irish tradition and culture.
[!] 위 두번째 예문에 나오는 danger을 더 살펴봅시다.
danger [noncount] 위험
I was unaware of the danger that lay ahead.
She was fearless in the face of danger.
None of us had any real sense of danger.
danger [count] 위험한 것, 위험한 인물이나 물건
It is important to teach your children about the dangers of smoking.
Here is a list of possible dangers associated with the procedure.
We believe it poses a serious danger to our national security.
He is a danger to himself and others.
Respect [plural] 인사말 (polite)
Please send my respects to your parents.
I paid my respects to the family at the funeral.
We went to his funeral to pay our final respects.
Trust [noncount] 신뢰, 책임
Our relationship is founded on mutual love and trust.
His lies and deception shattered my trust in him.
She has no trust in the security of online banking.
She betrayed my trust.
We left our pets in the trust of our neighbor while we were gone.
She has been places in a position of trust.
Trust [noncount] [count] 신탁자금
He created a trust for his children.
The property will be held in trust until her 18th birthday.
[!] take something on trust ~을 믿다
I don’t know anything about cars so I had to take the mechanic’s recommendations on trust.
Belief [noncount] 믿음
There is growing belief that these policies will not succeed.
He says that he is given strength by his belief in God.
He has a strong belief in his ability to win.
a story that is worthy of belief
Contrary to popular belief, deserts are not always hot.
(A) belief in God is more than a matter of logic.
Belief [singular/count] 믿음
He has a strong belief in himself.
a belief in democracy
a belief in God
a judge who had a firm belief in judicial restraint
He gets angry if anyone challenges his religious beliefs.
We challenged his beliefs about religion.
He tried to impose his beliefs on other people.
The people still follow their traditional beliefs.
Wind [noncount] [count] 바람
The storm was accompanied by northerly winds.
A gusty wind rustled the leaves.
The wind is blowing hard.
There isn’t much wind today.
Wind [noncount] 숨
I needed to rest to get my wind back after the climb.
The fall knocked the wind out of me.
Wind [count] 영향력이나 힘
the changing winds of political opinion
The winds of change have begun to blow.
[!] wind (숨)의 비슷한 의미인 breath 도 살펴봅시다.
Breath [noncount] 숨, 숨쉬기
gum that freshens your breath
His breath smells like garlic.
It’s so cold outside that I can see my breath.
He has bad breath.
My mad dash for the bus left me gasping for breath.
The patient complains that he’s short of breath.
I’m a little out of breath from walking up all those stairs.
Give me a moment to catch my breath.
The doctor asked if I had been experiencing shortness of breath lately.
Breath [count] 들이쉬는 공기의 양
I took a long breath before speaking again.
The patient was only able to take shallow breaths.
Take a deep breath.
Sand [noncount] 모래, 모래가 있는 곳
The beaches are covered with pinkish sand.
a grain of sand.
I have sand in my shoe.
The children are playing in the sand.
She walked across the hot sand.
Sands [plural] 해변, 사막
Tourists walked the sands.
They journeyed across the sands.
Nature [noncount] 자연
the beauty of nature
She is a real nature lover.
He devoted himself to the study of nature.
That is a color not found in nature.
Nature [count] [noncount] 천성, (고유의) 성질, 특징
She has a competitive nature.
The difference in their natures was easy to see.
an animal with a gentle nature
She’s very competitive by nature.
Her writing is humorous in nature.
papers of a confidential nature
You’ll need to bring a toothbrush, soap, and things of that nature.
Paper [noncount] 종이(물질)
We’ll need pens, glue, and some paper.
Be sure to print the letter on good paper.
She wrapped the present in pretty paper and put a bow on the top.
a sheet of paper
He scribbled the number on a scrap of paper.
Paper [count] 정보 등이 적혀있는 종이 낱장, (학술) 논문
A pile of papers blew off the desk.
She has possession of the writer’s personal papers.
They published a landmark paper in 1995.
She presented a paper at the conference.
a scientific paper
a government paper
The teacher was busy grading papers.
Paper [count] 신문
a news story in the local paper
the morning paper
Did you hear what the papers are saying?
It was the sort of thing you read about in the papers.
Papers [plural] 공문서
The border guards asked to see my papers.
[!] paper을 항상 셀 수 있다고 생각하는 학생들이 많습니다!
paper[noncount]와 [count]는 각각 뜻이 다르고 쓰임이 다르니 꼭 잘 읽어보세요.
Behavior [noncount][count] 행동, 동물이나 사람의 행동양식
I’m surprised by her bad behavior toward her friends.
Students will be rewarded for good behavior.
scientists studying the behavior of elephants
normal adolescent behavior
an interesting pattern of behavior
Inmates may be released from prison early for good behavior.
An acceptable social behavior in one country may be unacceptable in another country.
Doctors are trying to educate people about behaviors that can put them at increased risk for skin cancer.
to study learned behaviors
Weather [noncount] 날씨, 궂은 날씨
How’s the weather?
The weather today will be hot and dry.
a weather report
a weather forecast
The hikers sought protection from the weather under an overhang.
It looks like we’re in for some weather tomorrow.
Weather [plural] 다양한 종류의 날씨 (kinds of weather)
She likes to ride her bike in all weathers.
[!] a weather forecast (weather forecasts) 대신 ‘the weather(일기예보)’ 라는 표현도 많이 씁니다.
We’ll take a look at the weather right after this commercial break.
Check the weather before your make plans.
I turned on the radio to listen to the weather.
[주의!] 유사한 뜻인 climate은 countable noun 입니다.
Climate [count] 특정날씨 패턴을 가진 지역, 특정 지역의 날씨 상태(weather conditions), 널리 퍼진 분위기
The country’s climate is ideal for growing grapes.
the humid climate of Malaysia
increasing concerns about climate change
living in a cold/dry/mild/hot climate
These trees only grow in humid climates.
A climate of fear prevails in the city.
the country’s changing economic climate
The company is trying to develop a positive climate for innovation.
Success [noncount] 성공
Success came easily to him.
With success comes responsibility.
the secret of my success
Did you have any success in finding the dog?
The project met with little success.
He tried to repair the engine but without success.
Success [count] 성공을 이룬 사람이나 사물, 성공의 경험
The play was an immediate success.
The party was a big success.
one of her many successes
She is country music’s most recent success.
The growth of the tourism industry is one of the city’s great successes.